Tuesday, August 25, 2020

Overview Of Electronic Funds Transfer Marketing Essay

Diagram Of Electronic Funds Transfer Marketing Essay Dynamic My proposal depends on the E-banking innovation in which buyers can procure increasingly great, all the more quickly and fast financial administrations from the customized financial framework. This innovation has additionally been executed by the worldwide banks just as by banks in Pakistan to give efficient and effective administrations to their special purchasers. The goal of this theory is surrendered to unchain the significance that Pakistani banks are related with this type of e-banking innovation that is being executed by the banks for offering the electronic types of assistance to the purchasers and in what degree this innovation is critical to clients. This exploration work will likewise help to close whether the e-banking administrations are increasingly great, all the more quickly and brisk financial administrations. Part 1 Presentation AND BACKGROUND 1.1 INTRODUCTION At the point when Internet has gone into our day by day life, the most components of our lives, for example, training, correspondence, business, and so forth, were dominated by this novel wonder. One of these measurements is to deal with banking issues through the Internet (Shirali Shahreza, 2007). As indicated by (Richard Nyangosi Arora, Sumanjeet Singh, 2009) banking through electronic channels has increased a lot of fame as of late. This framework, prevalently known as e-banking, gives quicker conveyance of banking administrations to a wide scope of clients. Data innovation is turning into a significant factor later on advancement of money related administrations industry, and particularly in banking industry (Nami. M. R, 2009). In current business situations, clients utilizing the administrations results of the banks need better decision. (Avkiran, 1999) focused on the significance of the human touch in the client administrations. The ability of banking staff can be relied upon to legitimately influence the clients fulfillment. Be that as it may, e-banking advancements can help in better understanding clients needs and modifying the administrations/items as indicated by their requirements. In the new period there is a need of bank clients to get improved electronic financial administrations and furthermore better relations with the investors. It is additionally the need of time to offer proficient types of assistance/items to the clients. In Pakistan be that as it may, such sort of electronic banking has begun as of late. Internet banking framework present to their shoppers a lot of data related advantages that favors to receive e-banking, including the office for the clients to control their ledgers whenever and wherever, and to get to data content for settling on speculation and financing choices (Howcroft B, 2002). Because of the opposition among the banks in Pakistan, the banks need to offer the types of assistance, which are increasingly proficient, quick and upgraded the financial framework. In this way, the goal of e-banking is to make such workplace where clients can without much of a stretch find about the data they require for performing money related exchanges. 1.1.1 Definition of E-Banking Electronic banking, known as Electronic Funds Transfer (EFT), it is fundamentally the utilization of electronic techniques or intends to move cash electronically legitimately starting with one record then onto the next record, instead of money or check. We can utilize electronic subsidizes move for: 1. We can pull back cash by an ATM machine with an individual ID number (PIN), for our benefit at day or night. We can direct our bank or credit association to take care of consequently month to month utility tabs from our record, or our car advance even our home loan installment. 2. We can purchase food, fuel for our own vehicle, and different products at the buying point, utilizing a Mastercard as opposed to money. 3. We can utilize a prepaid brilliant card installed for our day by day buying like compensation telephone, cost costs, every day school cost or any book shops. 1.2 BACKGROUND The undeniably change in overall seriousness in business practices has improved the volume of bank on the planet. It has created extra financial information and furthermore improved client request of administrations given by banks. This upheaval has set a movement in the financial division for the arrangement of an installment framework that is perfect with the requests of the electronic market (Balachandher, 2001). For the sake of expanded rivalry, numerous banks and association didn't just lessen their expenses yet they have likewise expanded their items. Innovation has changed the preconditions for administration conveyance, drastically lately (Fredriksson, 2003). The banks are the monetary establishments to give purchasers reserve funds administrations, cash transmission administrations and credit administrations (Sinkey, 1990). In different terms, banks are worried about safe exchange and assortment of the executives capacities. In such manner the primary object of the banks is to making benefits and giving best administrations to their clients. Clients are anxious to a banks conduct on the grounds that the clients are the most critical reason for a banks store and income creation. These clients may either be a solitary individual or gathering of an individual or association. As per (Chaudhury Kuilboer, 2002) the capability of offering inventive types of assistance over the Web is restricted distinctly by ones creative mind. Online administrations, particularly banking administrations, are getting progressively appealing and option in contrast to visiting administration outlets or call communities for expanding their clients. In this manner it become simple for the clients to incline toward online administrations (Szymanski Hise, 2000), feel more in charge of the administration procedure (Bateson, 2000) to stay away from human contact with efficient (Meuter M.L. 2000). In Pakistan in any case, banking associations have been centered around reproach for not given to their clients with unique and reasonable financial administrations. Subsequently, the result that a few clients, think that its appropriate to keep their cash or holds at home than the banks. Studies will complete by two well known banks working in Pakistan, which have explored and applied mechanized innovation for the conveyance of banking administrations. Despite the fact that, banking organization has deferred to execute PC innovation in banking works out. Various investigations have presumed that IT effectsly affects bank administrations conveyance to clients, bank efficiency, clerks work, banking exchange and banking speculation. Along these lines, these effectsly affect the development of banking framework (Balachandher, 2001). Also, conveyance the top notch administrations is a route for the banking to improve their associations with their clients. By the Delivering great administrations, banks can accomplish consumer loyalty and through consumer loyalty banks can increase steadfast clients (Grã ¶nroos, 2000). Due to the profoundly undifferentiated administrations and items, monetary associations explicitly banks become fundamental apparatus for contending in this commercial center (Kim J.K, Han, Choi Kim S.H. 1998). Much examination has been done about the nature of administrations and client prerequisites in the conventional financial condition, where individual connection between the clients and the bank workers happens (Oppewal Vriens, 2000). Along these lines, this is significant for the web based financial administrations suppliers to turn out to be progressively skilled about the clients impression of the internet banking administrations quality. Then again the clients additionally have more desires and request when they are utilizing e-banking administrations either the administrations are agreeable or not. Since it is very simpler for clients to assess and analyze the advantages of contending administrations (Santos, 2003). 1.3 PROBLEMS DISCUSSION The investigation about e-banking adjustment has increased exceptional consideration during the most recent decade concerning occasion; banking diaries have committed unique issues on the point (Waite Harrison, 2002). There were a ton of complaints over the deferrals in customary financial administrations, withdrawals and postponement in preparing. Time is cash yet the clients need to hang tight for quite a while of their chance in the bank for any financial office. Some time even from a remote zone a client needs to head out to the concerned branch for any sort of exchange. On the end hours it turns out to be increasingly destructive in the event that anybody need make a business bargain for installment. Having the electronic tasks and computerized teller machine; it has made it simple that the banks would enact their e-units to help the web based financial administrations. In Pakistan, manual-banking framework was performing underneath standard administrations to the clients and it might be influenced on the clients support. Exchanges of the cash from one manual bank to the next can take five to ten days. Some time, when the motivation behind moving the cash has practically dead. Now and again businesspeople need to drop their business bargains because of the inaccessibility of the money moving office in time in conventional financial framework where administrations are as delayed as non-secure, non-agreeable. So as to fulfill clients needs, numerous banks develop their set through sites and Internet that offer the types of assistance and data to clients and the better help can assist with getting higher gainfulness. With the investigations of IT in significant, that would put a constructive outcome on bank efficiency, clerks work, banking exchange, bank backing, and conveyance of bank administration. These effectsly affect the development of banking (Yasuharu, 2003). Presently Pakistan Telecommunication Company Limited is giving broadband, which has empowered the clients to embrace the e-benefits rather than manual banking on the grounds that these are a lot of effective and precise. In Pakistan there is low education pace of workingwoman that are in administration. However, presently youthful taught age particularly lady are attempting to land positions and partaking in country building and economy and they need to utilize the financial administrations. In this way the e-banking administrations will help and fulfill them with respect to their desires for effective, precise administrations. As of late, numerous neighborhood banks in Pakistan have utilized the online s

Saturday, August 22, 2020

Gertrude of Shakespeare’s Hamlet Essay -- Character of Gertrude

The Gertrude of Shakespeare’s Hamlet   â â Is Gertrude, in the Shakespearean dramatization Hamlet, a drag? A killer’s assistant? The ideal sovereign? A sham? This paper will address numerous inquiries concerning Claudius’ accomplice on the Danish seat.  In her paper, â€Å"Acts III and IV: Problems of Text and Staging,† Ruth Nevo clarifies how the hero’s negative standpoint toward Gertrude impacts his mentality toward Ophelia:  While it is accurately his absolute powerlessness to know her [Ophelia], or besides himself, that the scene, in this dramatically less difficult view, would permit us to see as the focal point of his anguish. He is tormented definitely by questions, not by affirmations. What's more, how in fact would it be a good idea for him to know what Ophelia is? It is safe to say that she is cherishing and devoted to him in spite of parental power? Or on the other hand consistent to the last mentioned and in this way bogus to him? What has she been told about him? Is he not testing her with his hyperbolic statement:  I am extremely pleased, vindictive, yearning; with a larger number of offenses at my back than I have musings to placed them in, creative mind to give them shape, or time to act them in?  His mom has inclined him to trust in women’s deceptiveness, has delivered in him an aversion from sex and the tricks of sex; he couldn't draw Ophelia’s face by his examination; she has declined his letters and denied him get to; presently restores his blessings. What type of mischievous cheating will he anticipate? (49-50)  At the beginning of the disaster Hamlet seems wearing serious dark. His mom, Gertrude, is evidently upset by this and solicitations of him:   â â â Good Hamlet, cast thy nighted shading off,  â â â And let thine eye resemble a companion on Denmark.  â â â Do not for ever with thy vailed... ...loom. New York: Chelsea House Publishers, 1986. Rpt. from Tragic Form in Shakespeare. N.p.: Princeton University Press, 1972.  Pitt, Angela. â€Å"Women in Shakespeare’s Tragedies.† Readings on The Tragedies. Ed. Clarice Swisher. San Diego: Greenhaven Press, 1996. Excerpted from Shakespeare’s Women. N.p.: n.p., 1981.  Shakespeare, William. The Tragedy of Hamlet, Prince of Denmark. Massachusetts Institute of Technology. 1995. http://www.chemicool.com/Shakespeare/village/full.html  Smith, Rebecca. â€Å"Gertrude: Scheming Adulteress or Loving Mother?† Readings on Hamlet. Ed. Wear Nardo. San Diego: Greenhaven Press, 1999. Rpt. of â€Å"Hamlet†: A User’s Guide. New York: Limelight Editions, 1996.  Wilkie, Brian and James Hurt. â€Å"Shakespeare.† Literature of the Western World. Ed. Brian Wilkie and James Hurt. New York: Macmillan Publishing Co., 1992. Â

Sunday, August 9, 2020


Sitka Sitka sit ´k? [key], city (1990 pop. 8,588), Sitka census div., SE Alaska, in the Alexander Archipelago, on Baranof Island; inc. 1971. Fishing, its first industry, remains important; salmon, halibut, red snapper, crab, herring, abalone, and clams are caught. There are canneries, and tourism is also economically significant. Sitka was founded (1799) by Aleksandr Baranov . Destroyed by Tlingits in 1802, the settlement was rebuilt as Novoarkhangelsk and became the flourishing capital of Russian America. There, in 1867, the United States officially took possession of Alaska from Russia. Renamed after the purchase of Alaska, Sitka remained the capital until 1900. The Univ. of Alaska Southeast campus and Sheldon Jackson College are in the city. Points of interest include Sitka National Historical Park, scene of a decisive battle (1804) between the Russians and the Tlingit; the Russian Orthodox Cathedral of St. Michael (built 1844â€"48); and Castle Hill, site of the transfer of Alaska to the United States, which is commemorated by the annual Alaska Day Festival in October. State logging championships are also held in Sitka. Mt. Edgecumbe, on an island to the west, can be seen from Sitka's harbor. The Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia, 6th ed. Copyright © 2012, Columbia University Press. All rights reserved. See more Encyclopedia articles on: U.S. Political Geography

Saturday, May 23, 2020

Is Media Violence To Blame Essay - 528 Words

Is Media Violence To Blame? Today, there is more violence on TV, in video games and in music than ever before. Many times, media violence is linked with kids and teenagers committing violent acts. This is an attempt by parents and critics to eliminate violence in the media. Although, many think media violence is a cause of violence among children, they should be looking at what else causes violence. Many people believe media violence is not good and that it makes kids aggressive. Laboratory studies found that children who see violent programs, are more likely to be more aggressive than those who watch non-violent programs (â€Å"Doesn’t Cause Violence†). When people hear that, they believe children should not watch violent television shows.†¦show more content†¦If a parent is aggressive toward their kids, the kid will also act aggressive (â€Å"Videodrome†). Kids acting out their aggression causes them to commit acts of violence. Also, many parents do not monitor what their children are watching (â€Å"Doesn’t Cause Violence†). The parent should take the time to see what their children are watching, listening to or playing. If parents monitored what kids watched they would not blame the media. Mostly, parents should be more responsible and see what their kids are doing. There are many other factors causing violence with teen and children. One thing that could cause violence is growing up in a bad environment. If kids are always seeing violence in their surroundings, that will make violence seem okay to do so (â€Å"Doesn’t Cause Violence†). Seeing violence in real life affects kids more than a television show. Another thing that could lead to violence, are kids with low self esteem (â€Å"Videodrome†). When they do something violent, they may just be looking for attention. That kind of aggression does not come from watching TV, it is just part of who they are (â€Å"Videodrome†). People should look at what the real cause of violence is. There are many factors that cause violence, other than what kids watch, listen to or play. Parents and critics of violence think, because there are studies done in labs that they are right. If those people looked at what else is going on, they would not have to blame the media.Show MoreRelatedYouth Violence: Is the Media to Blame?1514 Words   |  7 PagesYouth Violence: Is the Media to Blame? COM/156 07/27/13 Mallory Dunkley Youth Violence: Is the Media to Blame? Not all children who watch violent programming get in trouble with the law; some feel that there is a strong direct link between the two. There is a good deal of compelling data that suggests that there is a direct link between the media and youth violence. Throughout our history, the media has and can influence people in different ways but the more obvious questionRead More Violence in the Media is Not to Blame for the Effect on Children1158 Words   |  5 PagesThe Effect of Violence in the Media on Children Television, movies, and video games are a big part of children’s lives in today’s technologically advanced society. However, there is a big controversy questioning the effects of these media outlets on children. Much of society claims to have proof for the belief that media violence affects children negatively. However, I am skeptical of the evidence that is stated to prove that claim. I feel that society has placed the blame on these mediums forRead MoreThe Media is not to Blame for the Violence in Society Essay698 Words   |  3 PagesThe Media is not to Blame for the Violence in Society People are quick to blame violence in our society on television, movies or video games because they are simple believable targets. We have to look beyond this disinformation and attack the real causes for the violence in our society. Violence in television programs, movies, or video games will not make a person kill someone else. People watch violent images all the time, and only a very small percent of them actually commit violent crimesRead MoreViolence in the Media in Richard Rhodes Hollow Claims about Fantasy Violence1289 Words   |  5 Pagesabout Fantasy Violence† expresses that the media’s portrayal of violence has no influence on those that view it. One of the first tactics that Rhodes used was by attacking the flaws of Organizations who blamed entertainment for the issues of violent behaviors. He claims that due to increased social control over the years has caused a decline in violence. Rhodes’ used thought-provoking tactics attempting to disprove that violence is influenced from the media instead he believes that violence is stemmedRead MoreThe Effects Of Media On Young Children, Teenagers, And Adults1297 Words   |  6 Pagesoutraged by violence in the media. Whether in video games, books, radio, music, or television, there is always someone or something to blame for the violence. Violence is everywhere in the media , there is no disagreeing with that. Whether it be movies, television, video games, or music, there will always be violence, but blaming it on movies, television, video games, or music is not the answer. If blame needs to be placed why are the parent of the children who choose to commit acts of violence not Read MoreThe Effect of Violence in the Media on Children Essay1150 Words   |  5 Pageschildrens lives in todays technologically advanced society. However, there is a big controversy questioning the effects of these media outlets on children. Much of society claims to have proof for the belief that media violence affects children negatively. However, I am skeptical of the evidence that is stated to prove that claim. I feel that society has placed the blame on these mediums for the violent acts, however serious or trivial, that children commit way too easily, before they even beginRead MoreViolence in Television, Movies, and Video Games Should Not Be Censored1653 Words   |  7 PagesVIOLENCE IN TELEVISION, MOVIES, AND VIDEO GAMES SHOULD NOT BE CENSORED Television, movies, and video games have a great influence on the minds of todays youth. But, what exactly are the effects of such an influence? Certain people have exaggerated the effects that these media have on todays youth. Many people, including government officials, have singled out these three media sources as the cause of some types of violence simply because it is an easy target for laying the blame. The truth isRead More Media Violence - Helping Youth Understand Death Essay887 Words   |  4 PagesMedia Violence: Helping Youth Understand Death    Weve all heard it before. Blame it on TV, or the movies. If a child bludgeons another child to death with a wrench or shoots a classmate, it is the violent TV programs that they watch which are to blame, not the parents or the supervisors who are supposed to be there to make sure their kids do the right thing. How far is it true that the media is responsible for trivialising death and violence, thus causing the children of America to go outRead MoreVideo Games and Violence Speech884 Words   |  4 PagesB.Z. Smith AP Lang 1 Feb. 2013 Videogames and Violence In today’s society, the vast majority of adolescents spend their free time indoors. Many of those hours are enjoyed playing video games, a habit which teenagers will never hear the end of from their parents. â€Å"These games will ruin you†, they say, â€Å"It makes you angry and violent†, they say, but does it really? Media often portrays videogames as detrimental to mental health, and this topic is especially scrutinized today because of theRead MoreBlaming the Media for the Worldwide Increase in Violence Essay892 Words   |  4 PagesBlaming the Media for the Worldwide Increase in Violence The mass media are an increasingly accessible way for people to learn what is important in the world today and what is acceptable behaviour in this society. Media outlets include film, radio, print, music and so on; film being the most widely used medium. The media which is prevalent in every aspect of our lives, is the perfect instrument to instil ideas in the minds of the people, and the most susceptible of them

Tuesday, May 12, 2020

Hayeks View Of Governing Inequality - 1545 Words

Social inequality can either be considered natural and necessary as inequalities creates incentives for individuals to work harder, or it can be considered systematic, an integral feature of social order that creates winners and losers. The former view would not consider inequality a public matter, therefore does not require governing. The latter however, would consider inequality a public issue that can only be reduced by government implementing policies to so. This essay will compare and contrast Hayek’s view of governing inequality with that of Stiglitz. To Hayek, strong state intervention restricts the freedom of individuals. His concept of freedom is without coercion and he is clear that people can only be coerced by other people and not by circumstance. Those who are unemployed or those who are living in poverty do so because of the market’s function of rewarding those with certain skills and penalizing those without. For Hayek, while these people may be suffering, they are not coerced because the market is an impersonal mechanism. (Blakeley and Clarke, p. 353) It is only constraint of freedom by people that is damaging. According to him, any intervention from the state to regulate society, however well intentioned the motives, will inevitably lead to coercive government, and ultimately a loss of freedom. Hayek views inequality as natural because they are a result of the differences in innate human nature. It is his view that some people are just more gifted than

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

BADM 3601 †Operations Management Assignmen Free Essays

Caroline Walsh BADM 3601 – Operations Management Assignment # 4? Due: Monday November 12th ? 5:00 PM (a) Â  A study? aid desk manned by a graduate student has been established to answer student’s questions and help in working problems in your OM course. The desk is staffed eight hours per day. The dean wants to know how the facility is working. We will write a custom essay sample on BADM 3601 – Operations Management Assignmen or any similar topic only for you Order Now Statistics show that students arrive at a rate of four per hour, and the distribution is approximately Poisson. Assistance time averages 10 minutes, distributed exponentially. Assume population and line length can be infinite and queue discipline is FCFS. Using this information, answer the following questions. i. Calculate the percent of utilization of the graduate student P= 4/6 = 2/3 = . 6667 percent utilization ii. Determine the average number of students in the system ?= 4 per hour ?= 6 students helped an hour Ls= 4/ 6-4 = 4/2 = 2 students in the system on average. iii. Calculate the average time in the system Ws= 1/ 6-4 = ? = . 5 hours average time in the system iv. Find out the probability of four or more students being in line or being served P0= 1 – 4/6 = 1- 2/3 = . 33 probability that there are 4 or more students being in line or being served. . Before a test, the arrival of students increases to five per hour on the average. ?Compute the average number of students waiting under this scenario. Lq= 4^2 / 6 (6-4) = 16/ 12= 1. 33 student waiting in line on average. (b) Â  What are the three characteristics of a waiting? line system? 1. Arrivals or inputs to the system: these have characteristics such as population size, behavior, and a statistical distribution. 2. Queue discipline, or the waiting line itself: characteristics of the queue include whether is it limited or unlimited in length and the discipline of people or items in it. . The service facility: its characteristics include its design and the statistical distribution of service times. —————————————————————————————– Question 2. Radovilsky’s Department Store in Haywood, California, maintains a successful catalog sales department in which a clerk takes orders by telephone. If the clerk is occupied on one line, incoming phone calls to the catalog department are answered automatically by a recording machine and asked to wait. As soon as the clerk is free, the party who has waited the longest is transferred and serviced first. Calls come in at a rate of about 12 per hour. The clerk can take an order in an average of 4 minutes. Calls tend to follow a Poisson distribution, and service times tend to be exponential. The cost of the clerk is $10 per hour, but because of lost goodwill and sales, Radovilsky’s loses about $25 per hour of customer time spent waiting for the clerk to take an order. ?= 12 ? = 15 (a) What is the average time that catalog customers must wait before their calls are transferred to the order clerk? Wq= 12/ 15 (15-12) = . 2667 average time to wait before transferred (b) What is the average number of callers waiting to place an order? Lq = 12^2 / 15 (15- 12) = 3. 2 average number of callers waiting to place an order (c) Radovilsky’s is considering adding a second clerk to take calls. The store’s cost would be the same $10 per hour. Should it hire another clerk? Explain your decision. Yes they should hire another clerk because the customer average wait time and average number of callers waiting to place an order indicate that a second representative is needed. How to cite BADM 3601 – Operations Management Assignmen, Essay examples

Saturday, May 2, 2020

Impact Of Recognition Disclosure Financial -Myassignmenthelp.Com

Question: Discuss About The Impact Of Recognition Disclosure Financial? Answer: Introduction In todays business world, Financial Reporting refers to one of the major aspects for the success of the companies. Financial accounting refers to a particular field of accounting that is concerned with the summary, analysis and reporting of the financial transactions related with the business operations (Scott 2015). This aspect also involves in the effective and correct development and presentation of financial statements of the business organizations. Advanced financial reporting is an integral part of the process of financial accounting that put an obligation on the companies to comply with the required accounting regulations and standards for the preparation and presentation of financial statements. The main purpose of the development and presentation of financial statements is to inform the investors about the financial health of the companies with the assistance of company annual report. For this reason, business organizations are required to comply with the required recognitio n criteria for various financial substances like revenue, assets and liabilities (Nobes 2014). The main aim of this report is compare and contrasts the recognition criteria of revenue, assets and liabilities of two Australian ASX listed mining companies; they are BHP Billiton and Evolution Mining. Introduction of the Companies BHP Billiton is one of the biggest Anglo-Australian multinational mining companies. The company was established in the year of 1885 and the company is headquartered at Melbourne, Australia. BHP Billiton mainly deals with mining, metals and petroleum products. The main products of the company are iron ore, coal, petroleum, copper, natural gas, nickel, uranium and others. From the business operations of BHP Billiton, it can be observed that the company operates under a dual listed company structure and the firm has two parent companies; they are BHP Billiton Limited and BHP Billiton PLC. A unified board is responsible for the business operations of the company. In the year 2015, BHP Billiton took a step for the simplification of their business portfolio with the creation of an independent global mining corporation (bhp.com 2018). Evolution Mining Evolution Mining is a major Australian gold mining company. The company was established in the year of 2011. The focus of the company is to operate in a safe and efficient way. Evolution Mining operates in five gold mining operations (evolutionmining.com.au 2018). Three of them are in Queensland, one in New South Wales and another one in Western Australia. It can be seen that the company has achieved many milestones over the years. Evolution Mining was announced as the winner of the NSW Mining Safety Excellence Award in the year 2016. At December 2016, the ore gold reserve of the company stood 6.99 million ounces and the mineral resources were 14.18 million ounces (evolutionmining.com.au 2018). Comparing and Contrasting the Revenue Recognition Criteria From the latest annual report of BHP Billiton, it can be observed that there are two sources of revenue for the company; they are Sale of Products and Provisionally Priced Sales. From the latest annual report of BHP Billiton, it can be seen that the company measured their business revenue based on fair value of the received or receivable consideration (Wagenhofer 2014). More specifically, the recognition of the revenue from sale of products is done where there is a transfer of risk and reward ownership of the products to the customers based on pre-determined delivery time and their measurement can be done on a reliable basis (bhp.com 2018). On the other hand, the recognition of the revenue from provisionally priced products are done on the basis of fair value of the received or receivable consideration based on the contractual price. In this context, it needs to be mentioned that the determination of the sales price is done on the basis of fair value agreement. The time between provi sional pricing and final invoice pricing is 60 to 120 days. Thus, it can be seen that the company has followed the principles of Australian Accounting Standard Board (AASB) for the purpose of revenue recognition (bhp.com 2018). Evolution Mining From the latest financial reports of Evolution Mining, it can be observed that the company has followed a simple process for the recognition of their business revenues. Evolution Mining uses to recognize their revenue from the sales of business goods when a transfer of the ownership of risk and reward is there from the company to the customers based on the pre-determined price (evolutionmining.com.au 2018). In this context, it needs to be mentioned that the quality and quantity of the products need to be determined in an accurate basis. Moreover, the measurement of the revenue is done based on fair value. The company uses the provisional price agreements for the metals of concentrate sales. On the other hand, prevailing spot price is used for the selling price of metal concentrates (Srivastava 2013). The time between provisional pricing and final invoice pricing is 30 to 90 days. Apart from these, the company does the recognition of provisionally priced sales is done based on the fai r value estimation of the total received consideration and receivable consideration (evolutionmining.com.au 2018). Fro the above discussion, it can be seen that both BHP Billiton and Evolution Mining follow fair value accounting for the recognition of revenue. As per similarity, it can be seen that both the companies have two sources of revenue; they are revenue from sale of goods and revenue from provisionally priced sales. As both of the companies operates in Australia and both of them have complied with the principles of AASB, a large number of similarities can be seen. Comparing and Contrasting the Asset Recognition Criteria From the latest annual report of BHP Billiton, it can be observed that the company has adopted different strategies for the recognition of different assets. The first type of assets is Property, Plant and Equipment (PPE) (bhp.com 2018). For the computation of PPE, BHP Billiton uses to record them at the cost value after the deduction of accumulated depreciation and impairment charges. In this aspect, the cost of PPE refers to the fair value of the assets obtained at the time of the acquisition and it includes the necessary directs costs associated with the implementation and development of PPE. The next type of asset in BHP Billiton is Intangible assets that include goodwill and other intangible assets. BHP Billiton does the recognition of goodwill when there is a difference between the fair values of the consideration at the time of acquisition and the fair value of the identifiable assets. In addition, the other intangible assets of the company are recognized at fair value after th e deduction of impairment charges and amortization costs (Cotter 2012). After that, trade and other receivables are the current assets of the company. It needs to be mentioned that BHP Billiton recognizes their trade receivables based on fair value after the consideration of amortization costs, effective interest rates, allowances and impairment costs. Inventories are another type of current assets of BHP Billiton. The latest annual report of BHP Billiton states that irrespective of the nature and type of inventory, their recognition is done at the lower cost of value and net realizable value. The determination of cost is done based on average costs. Moreover, it needs to be mentioned that BHP Billiton uses absorption-costing method for the determination of costs (bhp.com 2018). Evolution Mining As per the latest annual report of Evolution Mining, the recognition of plant and equipment is done based on cost price after the deduction of accumulated depreciation and impairment costs. Fair value is considered based for the determination of the costs of plant and machinery. Straight line method is used for depreciation purpose. Cash and cash equivalent is another type of assets for the company (evolutionmining.com.au 2018). Their recognition is done based on amortized costs. Another type of asset for Evolution Mining is trade and other receivable. For the recognition of trade and other receivables, fair value measurement basis is used after the consideration of amortized costs with the use of effective interest rate after deducting impairment. The due date for trade receivables is 30 days. The next type of asset of Evolution Mining is inventories. It needs to be mentioned that physical measurement is done for the measurement of inventories. Other hand, the recognition of invento ry is also done based on lower of cost and net realizable value (Biondi and Lapsley 2014). From the above discussion, it can be seen that there are many similarities in the recognition criteria of both BHP Billiton and Evolution Mining for assets. It can be observed that in most of the cases, both of the companies use fair value method for the recognition of PPE, trade receivables and intangible assets. However, in case of the recognition of inventory, difference can be seen. BHP Billiton uses fair value for the valuation of inventories where Evolution Mining uses physical method for the recognition of inventory. Comparing and Contrasting the Liability Recognition Criteria From the annual report of BHP Billiton, it can be observed that the company recognizes their trade and other payable on the basis of fair value (Clor?Proell, and Maines 2014). Another major liability of the company is net debt. The annual report states that net debt includes cash and short-term cash deposits. For the purpose of recognition, BHP Billiton considers the carrying value of these liabilities that is calculated on the basis of fair value (bhp.com 2018). In this context, it needs to be mentioned that the major components of net debt are bank loans, notes and debentures, finance leases, bank overdraft, short-term borrowings and others. In case of provisions, the recognition process is done in the presence of some significant judgment like the application or real discount rate, the timing of cash flows, the costs associated with future rehabilitation activities and others (bhp.com 2018). Evolution Mining In the annual reports of Evolution Mining, interest-bearing liabilities have major importance. Evolution Mining does the recognition of these liabilities based on fair value after deducting the transaction costs directly attributed towards the measurement of attribution costs. The recognition of gains and losses is done in the profit and loss account. After that, in case of trade and other payables, Evolution Mining does the recognition of the carrying value based on the fair value and it has been done due to the short-term nature of the liabilities (Mller, Riedl and Sellhorn 2015). It can be seen that there are different kinds of provision for the company. In case of the provisions of employee benefits, they are measured based on the amount expected to be paid at the time of settlement. On the other hand, the provisions for long-service leave liabilities are recognized based on the present value (evolutionmining.com.au 2018). From the above discussion, it can be seen that there are many similarities between BHP Billiton and Evolution Mining in the recognition of their business liabilities. It can be seen that both the companies use fair value for the recognition of their trade and other liabilities. However, it can be seen that there is a difference between the recognition criteria of provisions for both the companies. Conclusion From the above discussion, it can be observed that both BHP Billiton and Evolution Mining have some similarities along with some differences in the recognition of their assets, liabilities and revenue. However, the portion of similarities is more than the portion of differences. In case of the recognition of revenue, the above discussion shows that both the companies have complied with the strategies of fair value method. Thus, there is not any difference. In case of assets, it can be observed that both BHP Billiton and Evolution Mining have applied fair value technique for obtaining cost of the assets after the deduction of accumulated depreciation and impairment. However, difference can be seen in case of the recognition of inventory as Evolution Mining use physical technique for the recognition of inventory. In case of liabilities, it can be seen that there is a difference between the recognition of provision due to the presence of different types of provisions for the companies. Based on the whole discussion, some recommendations are provided below: It is recommended to these companies to comply with the standards and regulations of AASB for the recognition of revenue. It is also recommended to these companies to adopt fair value measurement technique for recognizing assets and liabilities. References BHP Billiton. (2018).Our history. [online] Available at: https://www.bhp.com/our-approach/our-history [Accessed 31 Jan. 2018]. Bhp.com. (2018).Annual Report 2017. [online] Available at: https://www.bhp.com/investor-centre/-/media/documents/investors/annual-reports/2017/bhpannualreport2017.pdf [Accessed 31 Jan. 2018]. Biondi, L. and Lapsley, I., 2014. Accounting, transparency and governance: the heritage assets problem.Qualitative Research in Accounting Management,11(2), pp.146-164. CLOR?PROELL, S.M. and Maines, L.A., 2014. The impact of recognition versus disclosure on financial information: A preparer's perspective.Journal of Accounting Research,52(3), pp.671-701. Cotter, D., 2012.Advanced financial reporting: A complete guide to IFRS. Financial Times/Prentice Hall. Evolutionmining.com.au. (2018).Annual Report 2017. [online] Available at: https://evolutionmining.com.au/wp-content/uploads/2017/10/171020-Evolution-Mining-Annual-Report-2017.pdf [Accessed 31 Jan. 2018]. Evolutionmining.com.au. (2018).Evolution Mining Australian Gold Company. [online] Available at: https://evolutionmining.com.au/ [Accessed 31 Jan. 2018]. Evolutionmining.com.au. (2018).Overview Evolution Mining. [online] Available at: https://evolutionmining.com.au/overview/ [Accessed 31 Jan. 2018]. Mller, M.A., Riedl, E.J. and Sellhorn, T., 2015. Recognition versus disclosure of fair values.The Accounting Review,90(6), pp.2411-2447. Nobes, C., 2014.International Classification of Financial Reporting 3e. Routledge. Scott, W.R., 2015.Financial accounting theory(Vol. 2, No. 0, p. 0). Prentice Hall. Srivastava, A., 2013. Selling-price estimates in revenue recognition and earnings informativeness. Wagenhofer, A., 2014. The role of revenue recognition in performance reporting.Accounting and Business Research,44(4), pp.349-379.